Current President- Fillipe Nyusi
Mozambique is a multi-party democratic country with a population of just over 29.5 million people.
Mozambique is a Southern Africa country and borders Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The country spent almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony until its independence in 1975. Following it’s independence, large-scale emigration by whites took place, economic dependence on South Africa was evident, a severe drought and a prolonged civil war hindered the country’s development. In 1992 the government reached a peace agreement with the rebels after a United Nation’s negotiations for peace.
Portuguese (official) and other 43 indigenous languages including Makhuwa and Makonde
Major religions in Mozambique include Christianity, Islam and African indigenous beliefs.
The economy of Mozambique has developed since the end of the Civil War (1977-1992). In 1987 the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilise the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements.
In Mozambique, agriculture is the mainstay economy and it employs more than 80 percent of the labour force. Fish, timber, copra, cashew nuts and citrus, coconuts, tea and tobacco are the main sectors of agriculture, fishing and forestry.
There are large mineral deposits in Mozambique, but exploration has been constrained by the civil war between 1977 to1992 and poor infrastructure. Minerals currently being mined include marble, bentonite, coal, gold, bauxite, granite, titanium, and gemstones. In 2011 Mozambique exported its first batch of coal and is expected to become the world’s largest coal exporter. The country is reported to have the fourth largest reserves of natural gas in the world, after Russia, Iran, and Qatar.
Mozambique-South Africa Relations
The relationship between South Africa and Mozambique began in 1923 during the colonial era. White South Africans and whites in Mozambique enjoyed close relationships, during the apartheid era, white South Africans moved to Maputo escaping social policies of the apartheid government. When Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, thousands of Mozambique-born whites moved across the border to South Africa, today referred to as Portuguese South Africans.
The black relations can be seen through the Shangaan or Tsonga people who live on both sides of the Mozambique-South Africa border. Black movement between the two states existed to large extent due to the possibility of employment of Mozambicans in the mines of South Africa.
South Africa played an important role in the Mozambique Civil War in supporting RENAMO against the FRELIMO government. In 1984, the two countries signed the Nkomati Accord which officially ended South Africa’s role in the war.
Coronavirus in Mozambique
Mozambique had 115 confirmed case of coronavirus, 42 recoveries and 0 death as of 14 May 2020.